Self Understanding Personality and Psychometric Instruments

Myers-Briggs type indicator (mbti)

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is one of the oldest and most respected psychometric instruments. It is based on the theories of Jung and all 16 personality types have equal value derived from eight possible preferences organized from four bipolar scales.

The three interpersonal needs

Inclusion is about making contacts and associating with others. Our need for Inclusion determines how much we involve others and the degree of prominence we seek. There is no neutral ground with respect to Inclusion. You are either ‘in’ or ‘out’, ‘one of us’ or ‘one of them’. As a result it can evoke strong reactions. Even if you do not want to be included, to be told you are being excluded feels bad. Positive aspects of Inclusion: Belonging, membership, togetherness, acceptance, involvement, significance. Negative aspects of Inclusion: Isolation, being an outsider or outcast, loneliness, detachment, being withdrawn/ ignored/insignificant.

Expressed and wanted behaviors

Our interpersonal needs determine how much Inclusion, Control and Affection behavior we initiate and how much we like others to initiate. Those behaviors that we push out in the direction of others are expressed behaviors, and those behaviors that we would like others to push in our direction wanted behaviors. The FIRO-B questionnaire gives you some indication of your current preferences for expressed and wanted Inclusion, Control and Affection on 0–9 scale where 9 is high.

Team management profile

The Team Management Profile Questionnaire (TMPQ) measures how people prefer to relate with others, to gather and use information, to make decisions and to organize themselves and others. The responses are fed into a Team Management Systems (TMS) software programmer which identifies your highest scoring preferences and leads to a profile of some 4,000 words describing your key work preferences. The Team Management Wheel is also developed from the work of Jung and presents the major roles that need to be covered in any work team. There are eight key team roles: Reporter–Advisers, Creator–Innovators, Explorer–Promoters, Assessor–Developers, Thruster–Organizers, Concluder–Producers, Controller– Inspectors and Upholder–Maintainers. This instrument is widely used commercially and clearly would be more supportive and constructive if used with a team which could involve a whole primary school staff as well as teams within secondary schools including senior management teams.


There are many psychometric instruments available. The three discussed here are useful and productive and recommended. These recommendations may be idiosyncratic. What this chapter will hopefully have demonstrated, however, is that, if you are to concentrate on your own personal and professional development, there are instruments which you can use to provide a foundation for your growth. What should be recognized is that they are simply a start.

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